REVIEW   Open Access    

Opportunity of lead-free metal halide perovskites for electroluminescence

More Information
    1. Lead-free metal halide perovskites (LFMHPs) are promising for electroluminescence.

      Synthesis methods, crystal structure, optical properties of LFMHPs are introduced.

      The research progress of LFMHP-based electroluminescent devices are discussed.

      Key challenges and potential prospects of LFMHPs are proposed.

  • Lead halide perovskites (LHPs), which have demonstrated exceptional optical and electrical properties are promising candidates for electroluminescent light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, concerns about the toxicity and stability have hindered their commercialization. In recent years, lead-free metal halide perovskites (LFMHPs) have emerged as promising alternatives, and significant progress has already been made in developing LFMHP-based LEDs. Nevertheless, their device performance is still inferior to that of well-developed LHP-based counterparts. To fully exploit LED applications and boost device performance, in this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the currently explored different metal-based LFMHPs. We mainly focus on the preparation methods, crystal structure, optical properties, and LED applications of these materials. Furthermore, we conclude with a discussion regarding the key challenges and potential prospects in this field. We hope that this review will inspire more extensive research on LFMHPs from a new perspective and promote practical applications of LFMHP-based LEDs in multiple directions of current and future research.
  • 加载中
  • [1] Adinolfi, V., Peng, W., Walters, G., et al. (2018). The electrical and optical properties of organometal halide perovskites relevant to optoelectronic performance. Adv. Mater. 30, 1700764.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [2] D’Innocenzo, V., Grancini, G., Alcocer, M.J.P., et al. (2014). Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites. Nat. Commun. 5, 3586.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [3] Han, T.-H., Jang, K.Y., Dong, Y., et al. (2022). A roadmap for the commercialization of perovskite light emitters. Nat. Rev. Mater. 7, 757−777.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [4] Wu, X.-g., Ji, H., Yan, X., and Zhong, H. (2022). Industry outlook of perovskite quantum dots for display applications. Nat. Nanotechnol. 17, 813−816.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [5] Tan, Z.-K., Moghaddam, R.S., Lai, M.L., et al. (2014). Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 687−692.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [6] Jiang, J., Chu, Z., Yin, Z., et al. (2022). Red perovskite light-emitting diodes with efficiency exceeding 25% realized by co-spacer cations. Adv. Mater. 34, 2204460.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [7] Bai, W, Xuan, T., Zhao, H., et al. (2023). Perovskite light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency exceeding 30%. Adv. Mater. DOI: 10.1002/adma.202302283.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [8] Jiang, Y., Sun, C., Xu, J., et al. (2022). Synthesis-on-substrate of quantum dot solids. Nature 612, 679−684.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [9] De Angelis, F. (2021). The prospect of lead-free perovskite photovoltaics. ACS Energy Lett. 6, 1586−1587.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [10] Moody, N., Sesena, S., deQuilettes, D.W., et al. (2020). Assessing the regulatory requirements of lead-based perovskite photovoltaics. Joule 4, 970−974.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [11] Sinha, P., Kriegner, C.J., Schew, W.A., et al. (2008). Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle. Energy Policy 36, 381−387.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [12] Zou, Y., Yuan, Z., Bai, S., et al. (2019). Recent progress toward perovskite light-emitting diodes with enhanced spectral and operational stability. Mater. Today Nano 5, 100028.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [13] Luo, J., Wang, X., Li, S., et al. (2018). Efficient and stable emission of warm-white light from lead-free halide double perovskites. Nature 563, 541−545.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [14] Gong, Z., Zheng, W., Huang, P., et al. (2022). Highly efficient Sb3+ emitters in 0D cesium indium chloride nanocrystals with switchable photoluminescence through water-triggered structural transformation. Nano Today 44, 101460.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [15] Das Adhikari, S., Echeverría-Arrondo, C., Sánchez, R.S., et al. (2022). White light emission from lead-free mixed-cation doped Cs2SnCl6 nanocrystals. Nanoscale 14, 1468−1479.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [16] Yin, J., Lei, Q., Han, Y., et al. (2021). Luminescent copper(I) halides for optoelectronic applications. Phys. Status Solidi RRL 15, 2100138.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [17] Zhou, C., Lin, H., He, Q., et al. (2019). Low dimensional metal halide perovskites and hybrids. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 137, 38−65.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [18] Ning, W., and Gao, F. (2019). Structural and functional diversity in lead-free halide perovskite materials. Adv. Mater. 31, 1900326.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [19] Quan, L.N., García de Arquer, F.P., Sabatini, R.P., and Sargent, E.H. (2018). Perovskites for light emission. Adv. Mater. 30, 1801996.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [20] Li, M., and Xia, Z. (2021). Recent progress of zero-dimensional luminescent metal halides. Chem. Soc. Rev. 50, 2626−2662.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [21] Zhou, G., Su, B., Huang, J., et al. (2020). Broad-band emission in metal halide perovskites: Mechanism, materials, and applications. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 141, 100548.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [22] Han, K., Jin, J., Su, B., and Xia, Z. (2022). Molecular dimensionality and photoluminescence of hybrid metal halides. Trends in Chemistry 4, 1034−1044.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [23] Bai, Y., Hao, M., Ding, S., et al. (2022). Surface chemistry engineering of perovskite quantum dots: strategies, applications, and perspectives. Adv. Mater. 34, 2105958.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [24] Wang, A., Guo, Y., Zhou, Z., et al. (2019). Aqueous acid-based synthesis of lead-free tin halide perovskites with near-unity photoluminescence quantum efficiency. Chem. Sci. 10, 4573−4579.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [25] Hou, L., Zhu, Y., Zhu, J., and Li, C. (2019). Tuning optical properties of lead-free 2D tin-based perovskites with carbon chain spacers. J. Phys. Chem. C 123, 31279−31285.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [26] Zhang, F., Zhao, Z., Chen, B., et al. (2020). Strongly emissive lead-free 0D Cs3Cu2I5 perovskites synthesized by a room temperature solvent evaporation crystallization for down-conversion light-emitting devices and fluorescent inks. Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 1901723.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [27] Song, G., Li, M., Yang, Y., et al. (2020). Lead-free tin(IV)-based organic–inorganic metal halide hybrids with excellent stability and blue-broadband emission. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 1808−1813.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [28] Wu, Y.-X., Wang, C.-F., Li, H.-H., et al. (2020). Highly efficient and uncommon photoluminescence behavior combined with multiple dielectric response in manganese(II) based hybrid phase transition compounds. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2020, 394−399.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [29] Zhang, Y., Liao, W.-Q., Fu, D.-W., et al. (2015). The first organic–inorganic hybrid luminescent multiferroic: (pyrrolidinium)MnBr3. Adv. Mater. 27, 3942−3946.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [30] Lin, J.-T., Liao, C.-C., Hsu, C.-S., et al. (2019). Harnessing dielectric confinement on tin perovskites to achieve emission quantum yield up to 21%. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 141, 10324−10330.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [31] Zhou, C., Tian, Y., Yuan, Z., et al. (2017). Highly efficient broadband yellow phosphor based on zero-dimensional tin mixed-halide perovskite. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 44579−44583.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [32] Lin, R., Guo, Q., Zhu, Q., et al. (2019). All-inorganic CsCu2I3 single crystal with high-PLQY (≈15.7%) intrinsic white-light emission via strongly localized 1D excitonic recombination. Adv. Mater. 31, 1905079.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [33] Liu, Y., Nag, A., Manna, L., and Xia, Z. (2021). Lead-free double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 60, 11592−11603.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [34] Li, S., Hu, Q., Luo, J., et al. (2019). Self-trapped exciton to dopant energy transfer in rare earth doped lead-free double perovskite. Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1901098.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [35] Benin, B.M., Dirin, D.N., Morad, V., et al. (2018). Highly emissive self-trapped excitons in fully inorganic zero-dimensional tin halides. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 57, 11329−11333.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [36] Xie, L., Chen, B., Zhang, F., et al. (2020). Highly luminescent and stable lead-free cesium copper halide perovskite powders for UV-pumped phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes. Photonics Res. 8, 768−775.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [37] Sebastia-Luna, P., Navarro-Alapont, J., Sessolo, M., et al. (2019). Solvent-free synthesis and thin-film deposition of cesium copper halides with bright blue photoluminescence. Chem. Mater. 31, 10205−10210.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [38] Chen, H., Zhu, L., Xue, C., et al. (2021). Efficient and bright warm-white electroluminescence from lead-free metal halides. Nat. Commun. 12, 1421.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [39] Li, J.L., Sang, Y.F., Xu, L.J., et al. (2021). Highly efficient light-emitting diodes based on an organic antimony(III) halide hybrid. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 61, e202113450.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [40] Wang, Z., Luo, Z., Zhao, C., et al. (2017). Efficient and stable pure green all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 light-emitting diodes with a solution-processed NiOx interlayer. J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 28132−28138.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [41] Liu, N., Zhao, X., Xia, M., et al. (2020). Light-emitting diodes based on all-inorganic copper halide perovskite with self-trapped excitons. J. Semicond. 41, 052204.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [42] Luo, J., Yang, L., Tan, Z., et al. (2021). Efficient blue light emitting diodes based on europium halide perovskites. Adv. Mater. 33, 2101903.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [43] Ng, Y.F., Neo, W.J., Jamaludin, N.F., et al. (2017). Enhanced coverage of all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 through sequential deposition for green light-emitting diodes. Energy Technol. 5, 1859−1865.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [44] Seo, G., Jung, H., Creason, T.D., et al. (2021). Lead-free halide light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 7% using host–dopant strategy. ACS Energy Lett. 6, 2584−2593.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [45] Zhang, M., Zhu, J., Yang, B., et al. (2021). Oriented-structured CsCu2I3 film by close-space sublimation and nanoscale seed screening for high-resolution X-ray imaging. Nano Lett. 21, 1392−1399.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [46] Bade, S.G.R., Li, J., Shan, X., et al. (2016). Fully printed halide perovskite light-emitting diodes with silver nanowire electrodes. ACS Nano 10, 1795−1801.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [47] Bai, W., Xuan, T., Zhao, H., et al. (2022). Microscale perovskite quantum dot light-emitting diodes (Micro-PeLEDs) for full-color displays. Adv. Opt. Mater. 10, 2200087.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [48] Mohamad, D.K., Griffin, J., Bracher, C., et al. (2016). Spray-cast multilayer organometal perovskite solar cells fabricated in air. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1600994.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [49] Hwang, K., Jung, Y.-S., Heo, Y.-J., et al. (2015). Toward large scale roll-to-roll production of fully printed perovskite solar cells. Adv. Mater. 27, 1241−1247.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [50] Hu, Q., Wu, H., Sun, J., et al. (2016). Large-area perovskite nanowire arrays fabricated by large-scale roll-to-roll micro-gravure printing and doctor blading. Nanoscale 8, 5350−5357.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [51] Wang, L., Shi, Z., Ma, Z., et al. (2020). Colloidal synthesis of ternary copper halide nanocrystals for high-efficiency deep-blue light-emitting diodes with a half-lifetime above 100 h. Nano Lett. 20, 3568−3576.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [52] Zhang, X., Wang, C., Zhang, Y., et al. (2018). Bright orange electroluminescence from lead-free two-dimensional perovskites. ACS Energy Lett. 4, 242−248.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [53] Xu, Y., Li, S., Zhang, Z., et al. (2019). Ligand-mediated synthesis of colloidal Cs2SnI6 three-dimensional nanocrystals and two-dimensional nanoplatelets. Nanotechnology 30, 295601.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [54] Han, P., Mao, X., Yang, S., et al. (2019). Lead-free sodium–indium double perovskite nanocrystals through doping silver cations for bright yellow emission. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 58, 17231−17235.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [55] Liu, X., Xu, X., Li, B., et al. (2020). Tunable dual-emission in monodispersed Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped Cs2NaInCl6 perovskite nanocrystals through an energy transfer process. Small 16, 2002547.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [56] Sun, W., Yun, R., Liu, Y., et al. (2023). Ligands in lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: from synthesis to optoelectronic applications. Small 19, 2205950.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [57] Leng, M., Chen, Z., Yang, Y., et al. (2016). Lead-free, blue emitting bismuth halide perovskite quantum dots. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55, 15012−15016.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [58] Ma, Z.-Z., Shi, Z.-F., Wang, L.-T., et al. (2020). Water-induced fluorescence enhancement of lead-free cesium bismuth halide quantum dots by 130% for stable white light-emitting devices. Nanoscale 12, 3637−3645.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [59] Zhang, J., Yang, Y., Deng, H., et al. (2017). High quantum yield blue emission from lead-free inorganic antimony halide perovskite colloidal quantum dots. ACS Nano 11, 9294−9302.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [60] Jiang, H., Cui, S., Chen, Y., and Zhong, H. (2021). Ion exchange for halide perovskite: From nanocrystal to bulk materials. Nano Select 2, 2040−2060.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [61] Van der Stam, W., Geuchies, J.J., Altantzis, T., et al. (2017). Highly emissive divalent-ion-doped colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 perovskite nanocrystals through cation exchange. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 4087−4097.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [62] Li, M., Zhang, X., Matras-Postolek, K., et al. (2018). An anion-driven Sn2+ exchange reaction in CsPbBr3 nanocrystals towards tunable and high photoluminescence. J.Mater. Chem. C 6, 5506−5513.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [63] Roman, B.J., Otto, J., Galik, C., et al. (2017). Au exchange or Au deposition: dual reaction pathways in Au–CsPbBr3 heterostructure nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 17, 5561−5566.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [64] Chung, I., Song, J.-H., Im, J., et al. (2012). CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal. High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 8579−8587.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [65] Goyal, A., McKechnie, S., Pashov, D., et al. (2018). Origin of pronounced nonlinear band gap behavior in lead–tin hybrid perovskite alloys. Chem. Mater. 30, 3920−3928.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [66] Bernal, C., and Yang, K. (2014). First-principles hybrid functional study of the organic–inorganic perovskites CH3NH3SnBr3 and CH3NH3SnI3. J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 24383−24388.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [67] Ruddlesden, S.N., and Popper, P. (1957). New compounds of the K2NIF4 type. Acta Crystallogr. 10, 538−539.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [68] Gong, J., Hao, M., Zhang, Y., et al. (2022). Layered 2D halide perovskites beyond the Ruddlesden-Popper phase: Tailored interlayer chemistries for high-performance solar cells. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 61, e202112022.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [69] Yuan, S., Wang, Z.-K., Xiao, L.-X., et al. (2019). Optimization of low-dimensional components of quasi-2D perovskite films for deep-blue light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 31, 1904319.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [70] Lanzetta, L., Marin-Beloqui, J.M., Sanchez-Molina, I., et al. (2017). Two-dimensional organic tin halide perovskites with tunable visible emission and their use in light-emitting devices. ACS Energy Lett. 2, 1662−1668.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [71] Wang, K., Jin, L., Gao, Y., et al. (2021). Lead-free organic–perovskite hybrid quantum wells for highly stable light-emitting diodes. ACS Nano 15, 6316−6325.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [72] Passarelli, J.V., Fairfield, D.J., Sather, N.A., et al. (2018). Enhanced out-of-plane conductivity and photovoltaic performance in n = 1 layered perovskites through organic cation design. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 140, 7313−7323.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [73] Gao, Y., Shi, E., Deng, S., et al. (2019). Molecular engineering of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites quantum wells. Nat. Chem. 11, 1151−1157.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [74] Smith, M.D., and Karunadasa, H.I. (2018). White-light emission from layered halide perovskites. Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 619−627.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [75] Guo, Q., Zhao, X., Song, B., et al. (2022). Light emission of self-trapped excitons in inorganic metal halides for optoelectronic applications. Adv. Mater. 34, 2201008.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [76] Zhou, C., Lin, H., Tian, Y., et al. (2018). Luminescent zero-dimensional organic metal halide hybrids with near-unity quantum efficiency. Chem. Sci. 9, 586−593.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [77] Zhang, Q., Liu, S., He, M., et al. (2022). Stable lead-free tin halide perovskite with operational stability >1200 h by suppressing Tin(II) Oxidation. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 61, e202205463.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [78] Karim, M.M.S., Ganose, A.M., Pieters, L., et al. (2019). Anion distribution, structural distortion, and symmetry-driven optical band gap bowing in mixed halide Cs2SnX6 vacancy ordered double perovskites. Chem. Mater. 31, 9430−9444.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [79] Maughan, A.E., Ganose, A.M., Scanlon, D.O., and Neilson, J.R. (2019). Perspectives and design principles of vacancy-ordered double perovskite halide semiconductors. Chem. Mater. 31, 1184−1195.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [80] Maughan, A.E., Ganose, A.M., Bordelon, M.M., et al. (2016). Defect tolerance to intolerance in the vacancy-ordered double perovskite semiconductors Cs2SnI6 and Cs2TeI6. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 8453−8464.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [81] Tan, Z., Li, J., Zhang, C., et al. (2018). Highly efficient blue-emitting Bi-doped Cs2SnCl6 perovskite variant: Photoluminescence induced by impurity doping. Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1801131.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [82] Jing, Y., Liu, Y., Zhao, J., and Xia, Z. (2019). Sb3+ doping-induced triplet self-trapped excitons emission in lead-free Cs2SnCl6 nanocrystals. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 7439−7444.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [83] Yin, H., Chen, J., Guan, P., et al. (2021). Controlling photoluminescence and photocatalysis activities in lead-free Cs2PtxSn1-xCl6 perovskites via ion substitution. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 60, 22693−22699.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [84] Lin, T.-W., Su, C., and Lin, C.C. (2019). Phase transition and energy transfer of lead-free Cs2SnCl6 perovskite nanocrystals by controlling the precursors and doping manganese ions. J. Inf. Disp. 20, 209−216.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [85] Zeng, R., Bai, K., Wei, Q., et al. (2020). Boosting triplet self-trapped exciton emission in Te(IV)-doped Cs2SnCl6 perovskite variants. Nano Res. 14, 1551−1558.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [86] Zhang, W., Zheng, W., Li, L., et al. (2022). Dual-band-tunable white-light emission from Bi3+/Te4+ emitters in perovskite-derivative Cs2SnCl6 microcrystals. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 61, e202116085.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [87] Du, M.-H. (2020). Emission trend of multiple self-trapped excitons in luminescent 1D copper halides. ACS Energy Lett. 5, 464−469.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [88] Roccanova, R., Yangui, A., Seo, G., et al. (2019). Bright luminescence from nontoxic CsCu2X3 (X = Cl, Br, I). ACS Mater. Lett. 1, 459−465.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [89] Ma, Z., Ji, X., Wang, M., et al. Carbazole-containing polymer-assisted trap passivation and hole-injection promotion for efficient and stable CsCu2I3-based yellow LEDs. Adv. Sci. 9, 2202408.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [90] Yang, B., Yin, L., Niu, G., et al. (2019). Lead-free halide Rb2CuBr3 as sensitive X-ray scintillator. Adv. Mater. 31, 1904711.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [91] Gao, W., Yin, L., Yuan, J.-H., et al. (2020). Lead-free violet-emitting K2CuCl3 single crystal with high photoluminescence quantum yield. Org. Electron. 86, 105903.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [92] Zhao, X., Niu, G., Zhu, J., et al. (2020). All-inorganic copper halide as a stable and self-absorption-free X-ray scintillator. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 1873−1880.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [93] Creason, T.D., McWhorter, T.M., Bell, Z., et al. (2020). K2CuX3 (X = Cl, Br): All-inorganic lead-free blue emitters with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield. Chem. Mater. 32, 6197−6205.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [94] Jun, T., Sim, K., Iimura, S., et al. (2018). Lead-free highly efficient blue-emitting Cs3Cu2I5 with 0D electronic structure. Adv. Mater. 30, 1804547.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [95] Chen, H., Pina, J.M., Yuan, F., et al. (2020). Multiple self-trapped emissions in the lead-free halide Cs3Cu2I5. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 4326−4330.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [96] Lian, L., Zheng, M., Zhang, P., et al. (2020). Photophysics in Cs3Cu2X5 (X = Cl, Br, or I): Highly luminescent self-trapped excitons from local structure symmetrization. Chem. Mater. 32, 3462−3468.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [97] Liu, M., Jiang, N., Wang, Z., et al. (2021). Mn2+-doped CsPbI3 nanocrystals for perovskite light-emitting diodes with high luminance and improved device stability. Adv. Photonics Res. 2, 2100137.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [98] Qin, Y., She, P., Huang, X., et al. (2020). Luminescent manganese(II) complexes: Synthesis, properties and optoelectronic applications. Coord. Chem. Rev. 416, 213331.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [99] Xu, L.-J., Sun, C.-Z., Xiao, H., et al. (2017). Green-light-emitting diodes based on tetrabromide manganese(II) complex through solution process. Adv. Mater. 29, 1605739.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [100] Hu, G., Xu, B., Wang, A., et al. (2021). Stable and bright pyridine manganese halides for efficient white light-emitting diodes. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2011191.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [101] Su, B., Zhou, G., Huang, J., et al. (2021). Mn2+-doped metal halide perovskites: structure, photoluminescence, and application. Laser Photonics Rev. 15, 2000334.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [102] Kwon, S.B., Choi, S.H., Yoo, J.H., et al. (2020). Organic solvent-free lyophilization assisted recrystallization synthesis of high-purity green emissive Cs3MnX5 (X = I, Br). J. Alloys Compd. 845, 156324.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [103] Yan, S., Tang, K., Lin, Y., et al. (2021). Light-emitting diodes with manganese halide tetrahedron embedded in anti-perovskites. ACS Energy Lett. 6, 1901−1911.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [104] Su, B., Molokeev, M.S., and Xia, Z. (2019). Mn2+-based narrow-band green-emitting Cs3MnBr5 phosphor and the performance optimization by Zn2+ alloying. J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 11220−11226.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [105] Lv, X.-H., Liao, W.-Q., Li, P.-F., et al. (2016). Dielectric and photoluminescence properties of a layered perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid phase transition compound: NH3(CH2)5NH3MnCl4. J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 1881−1885.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [106] Wang, Z.-X., Li, P.-F., Liao, W.-Q., et al. (2016). Structure-triggered high quantum yield luminescence and switchable dielectric properties in manganese(II) based hybrid compounds. Chem. Asian J. 11, 981−985.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [107] Zhang, Y., Liao, W.-Q., Fu, D.-W., et al. (2015). Highly efficient red-light emission in an organic-inorganic hybrid ferroelectric: (pyrrolidinium)MnCl3. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 4928−4931.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [108] Ye, H.-Y., Zhou, Q., Niu, X., et al. (2015). High-temperature ferroelectricity and photoluminescence in a hybrid organic-inorganic compound: (3-pyrrolinium)MnCl3. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 13148−13154.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [109] Bai, X., Zhong, H., Chen, B., et al. (2018). Pyridine-modulated Mn ion emission properties of C10H12N2MnBr4 and C5H6NMnBr3 single crystals. J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 3130−3137.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [110] Hu, G., Xu, B., Wang, A., et al. (2021). Stable and bright pyridine manganese halides for efficient white light-emitting diodes. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2011191.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [111] Jiang, T., Ma, W., Zhang, H., et al. (2021). Highly efficient and tunable emission of lead-free manganese halides toward white light-emitting diode and X-ray scintillation applications. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2009973.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [112] Yan, S., Tian, W., Chen, H., et al. (2021). Synthesis of 0D manganese-based organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite and its application in lead-free red light-emitting diode. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2100855.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [113] Saparov, B., Hong, F., Sun, J.-P., et al. (2015). Thin-film preparation and characterization of Cs3Sb2I9: A lead-free layered perovskite semiconductor. Chem. Mater. 27, 5622−5632.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [114] Ma, Z., Shi, Z., Yang, D., et al. (2020). Electrically-driven violet light-emitting devices based on highly stable lead-free perovskite Cs3Sb2Br9 quantum dots. ACS Energy Lett. 5, 385−394.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [115] Pal, J., Manna, S., Mondal, A., et al. (2017). Colloidal synthesis and photophysics of M3Sb2I9 (M=Cs and Rb) nanocrystals: lead-free perovskites. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 56, 14187−14191.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [116] Zhou, C., Worku, M., Neu, J., et al. (2018). Facile preparation of light emitting organic metal halide crystals with near-unity quantum efficiency. Chem. Mater. 30, 2374−2378.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [117] Morad, V., Yakunin, S., Benin, B.M., et al. (2021). Hybrid 0D antimony halides as air-stable luminophores for high-spatial-resolution remote thermography. Adv. Mater. 33, 2007355.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [118] Lei, H., Hardy, D., and Gao, F. (2021). Lead-free double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6: fundamentals, applications, and perspectives. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2105898.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [119] Zhou, J., Xia, Z., Molokeev, M.S., et al. (2017). Composition design, optical gap and stability investigations of lead-free halide double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6. J. Mater. Chem. A 5, 15031−15037.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [120] Volonakis, G., Haghighirad, A.A., Milot, R.L., et al. (2017). Cs2InAgCl6: A new lead-free halide double perovskite with direct band gap. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 772−778.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [121] Zhang, B., Wang, M., Ghini, M., et al. (2020). Colloidal Bi-doped Cs2Ag1–xNaxInCl6 nanocrystals: Undercoordinated surface Cl ions limit their light emission efficiency. ACS Mater. Lett. 2, 1442−1449.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [122] Mahor, Y., Mir, W.J., and Nag, A. (2019). Synthesis and near-infrared emission of Yb-doped Cs2AgInCl6 double perovskite microcrystals and nanocrystals. J. Phys. Chem. C 123, 15787−15793.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [123] Arfin, H., Kaur, J., Sheikh, T., et al. (2020). Bi3+-Er3+ and Bi3+-Yb3+ codoped Cs2AgInCl6 double perovskite near-infrared emitters. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 59, 11307−11311.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [124] Liu, Y., Rong, X., Li, M., et al. (2020). Incorporating rare-earth terbium(III) ions into Cs2AgInCl6:Bi nanocrystals toward tunable photoluminescence. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 59, 11634−11640.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [125] Rao, Z., Li, Z., Zhao, X., and Gong, X. (2022). Bi3+ and Sm3+ co-doped Cs2AgInCl6 perovskite microcrystals with co-enhancement of fluorescence emission. New J. Chem. 46, 15192−15199.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [126] Schmitz, F., Guo, K., Horn, J., et al. (2020). Lanthanide-induced photoluminescence in lead-free Cs2AgBiBr6 bulk perovskite: Insights from optical and theoretical investigations. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 8893−8900.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [127] Wang, C.-Y., Liang, P., Xie, R.-J., et al. (2020). Highly efficient lead-free (Bi,Ce)-codoped Cs2Ag0.4Na0.6InCl6 double perovskites for white light-emitting diodes. Chem. Mater. 32, 7814-7821.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [128] Jin, S., Li, R., Huang, H., et al. (2022). Compact ultrabroadband light-emitting diodes based on lanthanide-doped lead-free double perovskites. Light: Sci. Appl. 11, 52.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [129] Yin, H., Kong, Q., Zhang, R., et al. (2021). Lead-free rare-earth double perovskite Cs2AgIn1−γ−xBixLaγCl6 nanocrystals with highly efficient warm-white emission. Sci. China Mater. 64, 2667−2674.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [130] K, N.N., and Nag, A. (2018). Synthesis and luminescence of Mn-doped Cs2AgInCl6 double perovskites. Chem. Commun. 54, 5205−5208.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [131] Locardi, F., Cirignano, M., Baranov, D., et al. (2018). Colloidal synthesis of double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6 and Mn-doped Cs2AgInCl6 nanocrystals. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 140, 12989−12995.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [132] Zhao, F., Song, Z., Zhao, J., and Liu, Q. (2019). Double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6:Cr3+: broadband and near-infrared luminescent materials. Inorg. Chem. Front. 6, 3621−3628.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [133] Zhang, G., Wang, D., Lou, B., et al. Efficient broadband near-infrared emission from lead-free halide double perovskite single crystal. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 61, e202207454.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [134] Yang, B., Chen, J., Hong, F., et al. (2017). Lead-free, air-stable all-inorganic cesium bismuth halide perovskite nanocrystals. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 56, 12471−12475.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [135] Leng, M., Yang, Y., Chen, Z., et al. (2018). Surface passivation of bismuth-based perovskite variant quantum dots to achieve efficient blue emission. Nano Lett. 18, 6076−6083.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [136] Leng, M., Yang, Y., Zeng, K., et al. (2018). All-inorganic bismuth-based perovskite quantum dots with bright blue photoluminescence and excellent stability. Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704446.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [137] Shen, Y., Yin, J., Cai, B., et al. (2020). Lead-free, stable, high-efficiency (52%) blue luminescent FA3Bi2Br9 perovskite quantum dots. Nanoscale Horiz. 5, 580−585.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [138] Huang, J., Lei, T., Siron, M., et al. (2020). Lead-free cesium europium halide perovskite nanocrystals. Nano Lett. 20, 3734−3739.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [139] Alam, F., Wegner, K.D., Pouget, S., et al. (2019). Eu2+: A suitable substituent for Pb2+ in CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals. J. Chem. Phys. 151, 231101.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [140] Wang, L., Zhao, Z., Zhan, G., et al. (2020). Deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on a doublet d–f transition cerium(III) complex with 100% exciton utilization efficiency. Light: Sci. Appl. 9, 157.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [141] Wang, L., Guo, Q., Duan, J., et al. (2021). Exploration of nontoxic Cs3CeBr6 for violet light-emitting diodes. ACS Energy Lett. 6, 4245−4254.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [142] Guo, Q., Wang, L., Yang, L., et al. Spectra stable deep-blue light-emitting diodes based on cryolite-like cerium(III) halides with nanosecond d-f emission. Sci. Adv. 8, eabq2148.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [143] Lai, M.L., Tay, T.Y.S., Sadhanala, A., et al. (2016). Tunable near-infrared luminescence in tin halide perovskite devices. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 2653−2658.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [144] Hong, W.-L., Huang, Y.-C., Chang, C.-Y., et al. (2016). Efficient low-temperature solution-processed lead-free perovskite infrared light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 28, 8029−8036.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [145] Yuan, F., Xi, J., Dong, H., et al. (2018). All-inorganic hetero-structured cesium tin halide perovskite light-emitting diodes with current density over 900 A cm−2 and its amplified spontaneous emission behaviors. Phys. Status Solidi-R. 12, 1800090.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [146] Zhang, F., Min, H., Zhang, Y., et al. Vapor-assisted in situ recrystallization for efficient tin-based perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 61, 2203180.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [147] Lu, J., Guan, X., Li, Y., et al. (2021). Dendritic CsSnI3 for efficient and flexible near-infrared perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 33, 2104414.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [148] Liang, H., Yuan, F., Johnston, A., et al. (2020). High color purity lead-free perovskite light-emitting diodes via Sn stabilization. Adv. Sci. 7, 1903213.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [149] Wong, A.B., Bekenstein, Y., Kang, J., et al. (2018). Strongly quantum confined colloidal cesium tin iodide perovskite nanoplates: Lessons for reducing defect density and improving stability. Nano Lett. 18, 2060−2066.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [150] Gao, C., Jiang, Y., Sun, C., et al. (2020). Multifunctional naphthol sulfonic salt incorporated in lead-free 2D tin halide perovskite for red light-emitting diodes. ACS Photonics 7, 1915−1922.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [151] Hao, F., Stoumpos, C.C., Guo, P., et al. (2015). Solvent-mediated crystallization of CH3NH3SnI3 films for heterojunction depleted perovskite solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 11445−11452.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [152] Wang, Z., Wang, F., Zhao, B., et al. (2020). Efficient two-dimensional tin halide perovskite light-emitting diodes via a spacer cation substitution strategy. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 1120−1127.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [153] Cheng, Y.-H., Moriyama, R., Ebe, H., et al. (2022). Two-step crystallization for low-oxidation tin-based perovskite light-emitting diodes. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 14, 22941−22949.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [154] Liao, Y., Shang, Y., Wei, Q., et al. (2020). Two-dimensional tin perovskite nanoplate for pure red light-emitting diodes. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53, 414005.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [155] Jia, H., Shi, H., Yu, R., et al. (2022). Biuret induced tin-anchoring and crystallization-regulating for efficient lead-free tin halide perovskite light-emitting diodes. Small 18, 2200036.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [156] Zhang, W., Pathak, S., Sakai, N., et al. (2015). Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat. Commun. 6, 10030.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [157] Yuan, F., Zheng, X., Johnston, A., et al. (2020). Color-pure red light-emitting diodes based on two-dimensional lead-free perovskites. Sci. Adv. 6, eabb0253.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [158] Gong, X., Voznyy, O., Jain, A., et al. (2018). Electron-phonon interaction in efficient perovskite blue emitters. Nat. Mater. 17, 550−556.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [159] Chen, W., Shi, Y., Chen, J., et al. (2021). Polymerized hybrid perovskites with enhanced stability, flexibility, and lattice rigidity. Adv. Mater. 33, 2104842.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [160] Ma, Z., Shi, Z., Qin, C., et al. (2020). Stable yellow light-emitting devices based on ternary copper halides with broadband emissive self-trapped excitons. ACS Nano 14, 4475−4486.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [161] Sun, F., Liu, T., Ran, P., et al. (2022). Top-emitting microcavity light-emitting diodes based on all-thermally evaporated lead-free copper halide self-trapped-exciton emitters. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 13, 3431−3437.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [162] Zhao, B., Bai, S., Kim, V., et al. (2018). High-efficiency perovskite–polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photonics 12, 783−789.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [163] Ma, Z., Shi, Z., Yang, D., et al. (2021). High color-rendering index and stable white light-emitting diodes by assembling two broadband emissive self-trapped excitons. Adv. Mater. 33, 2001367.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [164] Cao, Y., Wang, N., Tian, H., et al. (2018). Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562, 249−253.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [165] Jiang, N., Wang, Z., Zheng, Y., et al. (2022). 2D/3D Heterojunction perovskite light-emitting diodes with tunable ultrapure blue emissions. Nano Energy 97, 107181.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [166] Yan, S., Tian, W., Chen, H., et al. (2021). Synthesis of 0D manganese-based organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite and its application in lead-free red light-emitting diode. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2100855.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [167] Singh, A., Chiu, N.-C., Boopathi, K.M., et al. (2019). Lead-free antimony-based light-emitting diodes through the vapor–anion-exchange method. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 35088−35094.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [168] Liu, H., Shonde, T.B., Gonzalez, F., et al. (2023). Efficient red light emitting diodes based on a zero-dimensional organic antimony halide hybrid. Adv. Mater. 35, 2209417.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [169] Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z., Yu, W., et al. (2021). Lead-free double perovskite Cs2AgIn0.9Bi0.1Cl6 quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes. Adv. Sci. 9, 2102895.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [170] Lu, S., Zhou, Q., Ouyang, Y., et al. (2018). Accelerated discovery of stable lead-free hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites via machine learning. Nat. Commun. 9, 3405.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [171] Wu, T., and Wang, J. (2019). Global discovery of stable and non-toxic hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites for photovoltaic systems by combining machine learning method with first principle calculations. Nano Energy 66, 104070.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [172] Matsuzaki, K., Tsunoda, N., Kumagai, Y., et al. (2022). Hole-doping to a Cu(I)-based semiconductor with an isovalent cation: Utilizing a complex defect as a shallow acceptor. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 144, 16572−16578.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [173] Lin, T., Dai, T., and Li, X. (2023). 2D/3D Perovskite: A step toward commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Solar RRL 7, 2201138.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [174] Matsushima, T., Bencheikh, F., Komino, T., et al. (2019). High performance from extraordinarily thick organic light-emitting diodes. Nature 572, 502−506.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [175] Zhang, J., Zhu, X., Wang, M., and Hu, B. (2020). Establishing charge-transfer excitons in 2D perovskite heterostructures. Nat. Commun. 11, 2618.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [176] Li, H., Liu, X., Zhou, D., et al. Realization of 1.54-μm light-emitting diodes based on Er3+/Yb3+co-doped CsPbCl3 films. Adv. Mater. DOI: 10.1002/adma.202300118.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [177] Gao, Y., and Dou, L. (2021). Organic semiconductor-incorporated two-dimensional halide perovskites. National Science Review 9, nwab111.

    View in Article Google Scholar

    [178] Guan, X., Lu, J., Wei, Q., et al. (2023). Suppressing disproportionation decomposition in Sn-based perovskite light-emitting diodes. ACS Energy Lett. 8, 1597−1605.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [179] Wang, Y., Zou, R., Chang, J., et al. (2019). Tin-based multiple quantum well perovskites for light-emitting diodes with improved stability. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 453−459.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [180] Heo, Y.J., Jang, H.J., Lee, J.H., et al. (2021). Enhancing performance and stability of tin halide perovskite light emitting diodes via coordination engineering of lewis acid-base adducts. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2106974.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [181] Liu, X., Yu, Y., Yuan, F., et al. (2020). Vacuum dual-source thermal-deposited lead-free Cs3Cu2I5 films with high photoluminescence quantum yield for deep-blue light-emitting diodes. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12, 52967−52975.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [182] Liu, X., Yuan, F., Zhu, C., et al. (2022). Near-unity blue luminance from lead-free copper halides for light-emitting diodes. Nano Energy 91, 106664.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [183] Huang, P., Kazim, S., Wang, M., and Ahmad, S. (2019). Toward phase stability: Dion-Jacobson layered perovskite for solar cells. ACS Energy Lett. 4, 2960−2974.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

    [184] Zhou, G., Liu, Z., Huang, J., et al. (2020). Unraveling the near-unity narrow-band green emission in zero-dimensional Mn2+-based metal halides: A case study of (C10H16N)2Zn1–xMnxBr4 solid solutions. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 5956−5962.

    View in Article CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Cite this article:

    Wang Z., Zheng S., Teng Q., et al., (2023). Opportunity of lead-free metal halide perovskites for electroluminescence. The Innovation Materials 1(1), 100015. https://doi.org/10.59717/j.xinn-mater.2023.100015
    Wang Z., Zheng S., Teng Q., et al., (2023). Opportunity of lead-free metal halide perovskites for electroluminescence. The Innovation Materials 1(1), 100015. https://doi.org/10.59717/j.xinn-mater.2023.100015

Figures(10)    

Share

  • Share the QR code with wechat scanning code to friends and circle of friends.

Article Metrics

Article views(5507) PDF downloads(1145) Cited by(0)

Relative Articles

Article Contents

Catalog

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint