The novel human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed more than 600,000 lives worldwide, causing tremendous public health, social, and economic damages. Although the risk factors of COVID-19 are still under investigation, environmental factors, such as urban air pollution, may play an important role in increasing population susceptibility to COVID-19 pathogenesis.
We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide study using zero-inflated negative binomial models to estimate the association between long-term (2010ĘC2016) county-level exposures to NO2, PM2.5, and O3 and county-level COVID-19 case-fatality and mortality rates in the United States. We used both single- and multi-pollutant models and controlled for spatial trends and a comprehensive set of potential confounders, including state-level test positive rate, county-level health care capacity, phase of epidemic, population mobility, population density, sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity, behavioral risk factors, and meteorology.
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Liang, D., Shi, L., Zhao, J., Liu, P., Sarnat, J.A., Gao, S., Schwartz, J., Liu, Y., Ebelt, S.T., Scovronick, N. and Chang, H.H. Urban Air Pollution May Enhance COVID-19 Case-Fatality and Mortality Rates in the United States. The Innovation 1 (3), 100047 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.xinn.2020.100047