The Earth has a history of 4.6 billion years, providing a fundamental foundation for the Earth sciences research. Research to date has shown that the Earth has undergone stages such as the molten Earth, the emergence of organic molecules, plate tectonic movements, snowball Earth, and the explosion of life, and then the emergence of the Anthropocene. Human change and adapt the Earth's environment. Nighttime lights captured through remote sensing reveal the traces of human activities on Earth. How will digital information technology change the Earth science's development? Where will the future of Earth's evolution trajectory go? These are all mysteries and unresolved that are worth exploring.
The Sun provides the energy for Earth's movement and evolution. The sundial, an application tool invented by early humans based on the early knowledge of the relationship between the Sun and Earth, was used to represent time and spatial relationships. The progress of human cognition and the development of technology have propelled a more profound understanding of Earth's history. Earth sciences that focus on the study of Earth's evolution and the habitable Earth is rapidly advancing through the integration of multiple disciplines.